You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.
    This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.


    Heavy Metal Stress and Increased Susceptibility of Steelhead Trout (Salmo gairdneri) to Yersinia ruckeri Infection

    Published: 0

      Format Pages Price  
    PDF (108K) 7 $25   ADD TO CART
    Complete Source PDF (5.4M) 402 $55   ADD TO CART


    Steelhead trout exposed to zinc concentrations as high 98 ppb did not demonstrate increased susceptibility to Yersinia ruckeri infection. Exposure to cadmium at 0.9 ppb did enhance susceptibility to infection; however, the exposure level was near the LC50 for cadmium against steelhead trout.

    Exposure of steelhead trout to copper concentrations as low as 2.0 ppb, which is considerably below the LC50 for steelhead trout, increased their susceptibility to Y. ruckeri infection. The time of exposure to the 10 ppb copper showed that maximum infection occurred after 48 h of exposure; however, a 12-h exposure could increase infection in the host fish.

    Results of this research show that the study of specific stress in fish caused by exposure to certain toxicants may be best studied by determining their susceptibility to a pathogen.


    aquatic toxicology, heavy metals, zinc, cadmium, copper, stress, red mouth infections, Yersinia ruckeri, disease, steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri

    Author Information:

    Knittel, MD
    Research microbiologist, Western Fish Toxicology Station, Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Ore.

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.30

    DOI: 10.1520/STP27427S