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A brief review of the various forms of closure is given, and the relative importance of plasticity-induced closure and roughness-induced closure is considered. On the basis of the lack of a thickness effect and an insensitivity to R in the absence of closure it is concluded that plasticity-induced closure plays a relatively minor role in affecting the rate of fatigue crack propagation with the exception of overload effects. A new form of closure, transitional closure is described and is shown to affect importantly the rate of fatigue crack growth upon a change in R ratio. The closure process for a short crack approaching a grain boundary is also discussed.
fatigue, fatigue crack propagation, fatigue crack closure, plasticity-induced closure, roughness-induced closure, crack-filling closure, transformation closure, transitional closure, grain-boundary closure
Professor, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT