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A brief review is given of the requirements to be met by small-scale direct models in duplicating the behavior of actual structures up to ultimate failure. It is found that the requirements on similitude, model materials, fabrication, and testing techniques are more restrictive in model studies where nonlinear structural behavior is the primary goal. The paper discusses current methods of structural modeling for the most common structural forms, materials of construction and loading. Examples of model studies of a variety of structures, drawn mainly from practical applications of the modeling technique are given. In all the examples chosen, the main objective has been the duplication of the inelastic structural behavior of the anticipated prototype structure under both static or dynamic loads.
structural testing, structural models, small-scale direct models, inelastic structural behavior, modeling techniques, physical models, experimental structural analysis
Associate professor, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa.