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A comprehensive description of the mechanisms of fatigue in metals is given for the temperature range in which creep processes are not important. The general response of materials to cyclic loading is discussed, including fatigue hardening/softening and the development of inhomogeneous plastic strains. The generation of fatigue cracks is treated by listing first the common sites for initiation and then discussing the various mechanisms for initiation which have been observed. Fatigue crack growth is described generally in terms of propagation modes and the appearance of fracture surfaces. Then the mechanisms of crack advance are considered in detail, and the effects of multiple load amplitude are included. Predictive theories of fatigue, from early “damage” theories to recent crack growth laws, are discussed in the light of fatigue mechanisms knowledge. Included is a discussion of the effects of crystal structure on fatigue strength. Finally, the practical implications of fatigue mechanisms knowledge are presented as they affect nondestructive inspection, repair of fatigue damage, the choice of fatigue-resistant materials, and development of new materials. There are 68 references to the fatigue literature.
metals, fatigue (materials), creep properties, damage, hardening (materials), cracking (fracturing), crack initiation, crack propagation, plastic deformation, strains, cyclic loads, crystal structure, evaluation, nondestructive tests
Principal advisor for physicsMember ASTM, Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, Mo.