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Spray application is a complex and dynamic process involving many interdependent components. Improvements in pesticide use efficiency will require a more intensive study of the physical and physiochemical parameters controlling droplet dynamics, deposition on defined targets and biological response. The biological effect depends on the toxicological properties of the active ingredient (AI), its formulation, the concentration and pattern of the dose at the point of action. Changes in formulation of a pesticide may result in significant changes in pest response to and hence transfer of a toxin. Encapsulation of insecticides showed significant changes in avoidance/irritant reactions by certain pests vs that recorded for standard formulations. Droplet size also affected the performance of materials tested. Separation of drop (and particle) size, concentration, and formulation effects can be useful in understanding toxin activity and developing accurate parameters for specific targets and crop protection agents.
formulation, droplet size, distribution, twospotted spider mites
Head and Professor, Laboratory for Pest Control Application Technology, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH