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    Ladle Refining: An Integral Part of Bearing Steel Manufacture

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    The entire bearing steel output of Stocksbridge Engineering Steels is produced through a ladle furnace route which encompasses the major process elements necessary for the achievement of high product-cleanliness levels. The equipment and process routes involved are described, together with the vacuum arc remelting capability and its associated, high-integrity ultrasonic inspection unit. Improvements in steel cleanliness achievable with these manufacturing facilities have been assessed in terms of lower oxygen levels, better microcleanliness, and higher fatigue lives.


    bearing steels, ladle furnace, vacuum arc remelted (VAR), steel cleanliness, SAE 52100, SAE 1070, SAE 1552, carburizing steels, ultrasonic inspection, rolling contact fatigue, oxygen content, inclusion assessment

    Author Information:

    Davies, IG
    Technical director, Stocksbridge Engineering Steels, Sheffield,

    Clarke, MA
    Manager, Metallurgical Development, Stocksbridge Engineering Steels, Sheffield,

    Dulieu, D
    Manager, Alloy Steel Department, Swinden Laboratories, British Steel Corporation, Rotherham,

    Committee/Subcommittee: A01.28

    DOI: 10.1520/STP26247S