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There is a recognized need for standard artifacts with which to calibrate the laser-scanning instruments which detect and monitor microcontamination on semiconductor wafers. Although commercial calibration wafers are available for this purpose, the present paper proposes the use of National Bureau of Standards (NBS) particle-sizing standard microspheres, deposited on polished silicon substrates, as an alternative working standard until such time as a true national calibration artifact is developed. To this end, several techniques for depositing the microspheres on semiconductor surfaces are presented in the paper. In addition, the techniques used to certify the NBS particle standards and the measurement results from each technique are summarized.
contamination, laser scanning, microspheres, particulates, semiconductor wafers, standards
physicist, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD