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    Risk Reduction Through Use of Closed Systems: An Attainable Goal?

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    Closed systems have been advanced as means for minimizing the amount of exposure received by persons who mix and transfer agricultural pesticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has considered required use of closed systems as potentially viable alternatives to cancellation of certain hazardous formulations or to mandatory use of full protective clothing outfits in hot climates. The EPA is concerned about the performance of closed systems in practice. The effectiveness of closed systems has been limited by problems in accommodating the large variety of containers used for liquid agricultural pesticides, human errors, and equipment failures. Improvements in these areas are being realized through development of higher quality, more versatile equipment that is relatively easy to operate, and through movement toward container standardization within the agrichemical industry. While currently available closed systems can reduce pesticide exposure, they do not eliminate it entirely.


    closed mixing systems, pesticides, containers, pesticide exposure, risk, closures, probes

    Author Information:

    Jacobs, WW
    Biologist, Registration Division, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC,

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.22

    DOI: 10.1520/STP25877S