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Whole wafer mapping is a useful method for studying inhomogeneities in as-grown or processed silicon. However, its usefulness has been limited to structures on which four-point-probe measurements can be made. This paper shows that the spreading resistance technique can be used for surface mapping in those situations where four-point-probe measurements are difficult or impossible. The strengths and weaknesses of the two mapping techniques are compared for the following types of samples: P on P+ or N on N+ epi wafers, low-dose ion implants, ion implants into same conductivity-type substrates, heavily-doped as-grown materials, and very thin films.
resistivity mapping, spreading resistance, four-point probe, silicon process control, epitaxial layers, ion implants
PresidentSolid State Measurements, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA