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The calculation of resistivity profiles (and carrier density profiles) from spreading resistance requires the use of a correction factor. The present status of the calculation of the correction factor based upon the Schumann and Gardner multilayer solution of Laplace's equation is reviewed and discussed. Recent calculations of carrier densities from atomic densities are also discussed. In particular, the numerical solutions of the semiconductor equations are reviewed and their implications in the interpretation of spreading resistance measurements for profiling shallow layers are presented. The limitations of the multilayer Laplace equation analysis of spreading resistance in VLSI profiling are also discussed.
atomic distributions, carrier distributions, conductivity, correction factor, finite element method, Laplace's equation, Poisson's equation, resistivity, semiconductor equations, spreading resistance analysis
physicist, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland