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Some problems concerning the quantitative analysis of surfaces originate with the surface itself due to chemical inhomogeneity, roughness, selective diffusion, and grain boundary segregation. Therefore, it is difficult to prepare surface standards. Two choices exist. Either well-characterized bulk standards are used or analysis is done only using elemental standards. Many problems also exist with the various methods of surface analysis such as selective sputtering, surface decomposition, changing ion or electron yields and variable or unknown sampling depths. Ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) appears to require fewer corrections than most techniques because of its high sensitivity and selectivity to surface species. ISS used with either elemental or alloy standards and the equilibrium sputtered surface concept provides a rapid and reproducible method for surface analysis.
quantitative analysis, materials, ions, spectroscopy, surfaces, alloys, thin films
Research chemist, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio