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The technique of dividing photoelectron line areas by elemental sensitivity factors or standard intensities can be applied to single-phase systems but not to multiple-phase systems. Elements other than transition metals can be determined with a standard deviation of 10 percent if photoelectrons of similar energy are used. Larger errors result from using lines of widely different energies because of variations in mean free path ratios among materials, and, more importantly, surface contamination. Transition metals pose special problems because of the prevalence of multielectron processes.
quantitative analysis, materials, mean free path, transmission, photoelectrons, intensity, sensitivity
Consultant in surface analysis, Menlo Park, Calif