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A review is given of the physical basis for quantitative surface analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The principal topics discussed are: the feasibility of surface analysis, approaches to surface analysis, description of models and data for surface analysis by AES and XPS, analytical methods, intensity measurements, practical considerations, applications, and reference materials.
quantitative analysis, materials, analysis, Auger electrons, spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy
Physicist, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.