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Monitoring of both inspired and end-tidal concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and volatile anesthetic vapors is nowadays possible with a stand-alone unit based on infrared and paramagnetic technologies (Capnomac, Datex/Instrumentarium, Helsinki, Finland). The clinical value of the breath-by-breath information on the management of low-flow and partial rebreathing breathing circuits during various phases of general anesthesia are discussed in the light of multigas trends. It is concluded that quantitative analysis of both gases and halocarbon vapors is informative of gas delivery, uptake, and distribution, provides useful information on patient management, and enhances patient safety.
monitoring, physiologic, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, anesthesia, inhalational, anesthesia, closed circuit
Staff anesthesiologist, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki,