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    Seventy-Five Years of Activity in X-Ray Methods by ASTM Committee E4.06

    Published: 01 January 1993

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    ASTM Subcommittee E4.06 on X-ray Metallography was organized in 1925, nine years after Committee E4 itself was formed. The first standard on radiography was published the next year, 30 years after the discovery of X-rays. In 1938, Hanawalt et al. developed their method of identifying compounds by X-ray diffraction that became the basis of ASTM Standard E 43, published in 1942. In 1941, the National Research Council and ASTM organized the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) to administrate the publication of the data used in this method. Since then, the JCPDS has grown to include twelve Cooperating Organizations and over 100 contributing societies. It became independent of ASTM in 1969. Other additional activities of Subcommittee E4.06 Have included developing standards on determining the orientation of single crystals, the preferred orientation of polycrystals, and retained austenite in heat-treated steels.


    X-rays, X-ray diffraction, diffraction, standards, metallography, metallurgical specimens, microstructure, metallographic techniques

    Author Information:

    Purdy, SM
    Senior research associate, Technical Research CenterNational Steel Corporation, DetroitTrenton, MI

    Zwell, L
    Consultant, Swarthmore, PA

    Committee/Subcommittee: E04.11

    DOI: 10.1520/STP25100S