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A new approach to deep compaction of granular soils is presented, which makes it possible to take into account the site-specific conditions in the design of the compaction process. Special vibratory probes have been developed, the shape and dynamic properties of which are chosen to achieve optimal transfer of the compaction energy to the soil. The operating frequency of the vibrator, which is attached to the top of the probe, can be varied to achieve optimal soil densification. Results from extensive field measurements from compaction projects are presented. Settlements after compaction range between 5 and 10 % of layer thickness. An increase of penetration resistance of between 50 and 300 % has been observed. A rational design concept for the resonant compaction technique is presented.
compaction, sands, vibrations, resonance, wave velocity, penetration tests, compressibility, settlements, earthquakes, liquefaction, permeability
GEO ENGINEERING SA, WATERLOO,