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Considering only cubic symmetry (three independent monocrystal elastic-stiffness coefficients, Cij), we review various models for converting the Cij to the effective macroscopic quasiisotropic and homogeneous elastic constants, usually taken as B, the bulk modulus, and G, the shear modulus. To test the models, we consider a typical metal: copper, which possesses a moderate Zener elastic-anisotropy ratio, 3.19, and which was measured by pulse-echo dynamic (MHz) methods. We find that the Hershey-Kröner-Eshelby, and equivalent, models work best. We ignore models that lack a physical basis. Using the H-K-E model, we calculate the effective polycrystalline elastic constants of twenty-five cubic elements.
bulk modulus, elastic constants, monocrystal-polycrystal relationships, physical properties, Poisson ratio, shear modulus, Young modulus
research metallurgist, NISTNBS, Boulder, Colorado