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Material dynamic elastic moduli can be readily obtained from a knowledge of the material's sound velocity(s) and density. One well-established ultrasonic technique for making the velocity measurements is the pulsed-wave transit-time technique. It is a versatile and potentially very accurate technique that can also assess the material elastic homogeneity and anisotropy. Here the many measurement and material factors affecting the precision of the method are addressed. A specific example of the effect of grain size on measurements in steel is presented in some detail.
ultrasonic moduli, ultrasonic velocity, elastic moduli, material dynamic elasticity
physicist in the Ultrasonic Standards Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology,