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With the increasing use of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for the production of carbon and alloy special quality engineering bar steels, controlling and restricting residual elements have become an increasingly significant economic component of steelmaking. This paper reviews the trend in EAF production and discusses the various types of scrap used in EAF steelmaking and the formulation of scrap charges to achieve residual control. Reasons for specifying residual restrictions and some rational alternatives are presented.
residual elements, electric furnaces, continuous casting, scrap, copper, hot shortness, formability, hardenability
Manager of product development, LTV Steel Company, Massillon, OH