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A quantitative risk assessment was performed to estimate the potential for adverse health effects due to contaminants originating from wastes in three surface impoundments. A hypothetical exposure scenario was developed to assess potential risk. The scenario assumed chronic exposure to contaminants by daily consumption of groundwater from wells adjacent, and downgradient from the impoundments. Assumptions included future residential land use, utilization of shallow groundwater as a source of potable water, and steady-state conditions. These assumptions produced maximum exposure conditions and a conservative estimate of risk.
Methods follow Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for Superfund sites. Toxicity data were obtained from the EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST). Noncarcinogenic risk was expressed by comparing the reference dose (RfD) for chemicals of concern to estimated intakes. Carcinogenic risk was expressed as the probability of an individual developing cancer during a lifetime of exposure at the specified dose. Uncertainties associated with the risk assessment are presented and discussed.
risk assessment, site characterization, remedial investigation, feasibility study, nitrates in groundwater, fluoride in groundwater
Project Manager, EcoTek, Inc., Erwin, TN