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Pesticides that are (1) hydrolytically stable, (2) water insoluble, and (3) liquid or have melting points too low for milling into conventional aqueous flowables may be formulated as concentrated oil-in-water emulsions (CEs). High-poundage CEs resemble conventional flowables from a formulation perspective as well as physically. The principal advantages include (1) the lower cost of inerts of these less-solvent-dependent formulations, (2) excellent tank-mix and liquid fertilizer compatibility, (3) ease of incorporation of adjuvants, (4) utility in multiple pesticide blend flowables, and (5) lower phytotoxicity.
Surfactant usage in CEs is an economical 4 to 8%. Surfactant selection follows the established procedure for emulsifiable concentrates (that is, optimum hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, anionic/nonionic balance, different chemical types), although dispersants, suspending agents, and preservatives are usually also required in these aqueous systems. Manufacture involves high shear agitation but not necessarily homogenization. Testing is almost identical to that employed in aqueous flowable formulation development and quality control.
pesticides, formulations, concentrated emulsion, flowables, surfactant selection, preservative requirements, manufacture, testing
ICI Americas, Inc., Wilmington, DE