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Ongoing development of in situ sensing systems will enable accurate, rapid measurement of many chemical and physical parameters at monitoring wells before the year 2000. The potential reduction of sampling and analysis costs, which are often a major portion of costs for monitoring at CERCLA and RCRA facilities, is the primary reason for the emphasis toward lower-cost in situ methods for obtaining ground-water quality data. The costs are lowered by reducing field labor, reducing or eliminating purge-water-disposal costs, and reducing the number of laboratory analyses. Relatively little has been done either to adapt new in situ technologies to the configuration of existing monitoring wells or to make deployment adaptations for minimizing purge water. Proper deployment of in situ sensor systems in monitoring wells will require an understanding of the monitoring well design with respect to the stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulics, size and configuration of in situ chemical sensor system(s), and purging requirements relative to accuracy of contaminant concentrations.
in situ sensors, sampling, deployment, measurement, ground water, monitoring well, purging, purge-water
Senior Research Engineer, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA