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The use of titanium as a conductive electrode substrate for industrial electrolytic applications began in the late 1960s when the so-called dimensionally stable anodes technology was commercialized for chlor-alkali production. Pioneered work by researchers, such as Cotton and Beer as far back as the 1940s through 1950s, recognized the fact that the passive oxide layer formed on titanium at high temperatures could be made conductive by doping the oxide with platinum group metals. The surface titanium oxide congruent with the precious metal oxide resulted in solid solution formation, and electrodes produced this way demonstrated unique electrochemical properties. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the major advantages and limitations of dimensionally stable electrode technology. This review will be applications oriented and is targeted to provide an in-depth look at titanium as an electrocatalyst support for effecting electrolysis or other electrochemical reactions.
titanium, anodes, cathodes, electrowinning, electrorefining, electrocatalyst, electrolytic
Director, New Ventures, Engelhard Corporation, Menlo Park, NJ