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Current USA practice for predicting the durability of clay masonry units rely largely on physical properties for an indication of the masonry durability. As an alternative to physical properties, freezing and thawing tests provide a more reliable measure of the durability of clay masonry. In the USA, freezing and thawing testing of clay masonry is typically performed in accordance with ASTM C 67 procedures. However, the C 67 test method does not represent freezing and thawing conditions as occur on exterior clay brick masonry walls. In masonry walls the freezing and thawing environment occurs from one direction, from the exterior side of the wall. Test methods currently in use in Europe and Canada offer test conditions that represent the uni-directional freezing and thawing characteristics of clay masonry units placed in the wall. This paper reviews the uni-directional tests currently available, describe their advantages and disadvantages and makes specific recommendations as to uni-directional test methods for the USA.
brick durability, freezing and thawing testing, uni-directional tests
Consultant, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL