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This paper discusses the introduction into commercial practice of a number of new forging press and control technologies developed by press builders for the forging of high-temperature alloys and special stainless steels.
The paper categorizes forging technologies by forging characteristics and press characteristics. A number of specific fields are then surveyed: 1. Warm die forging to produce finished gear profiles without further machining. 2. Isothermal and hot die forging, in which the die temperature and the billet temperature are identical or very close, for forging high-temperature materials used in gas turbine engines and similar applications. The presses and controls required for these different applications are described in some detail. 3. Precision forging, also known as draftless forging in the aircraft industry, is described. The sophisticated controls needed for this type of forging are discussed. 4. Multiaxis forging, not a new technique, used for the production of items weighing several tons for severe duty. Again, modern controls and press design make these forging technologies commercial practice. 5. Automation is now moving into the forge shop; items such as the ring preforms for ring mills, which formerly were hammered to shape, are now produced at high speeds on automatic ring preform presses. 6. Computer controls have now been applied to preform forging to eliminate the open die in the hand shaping of preforms before finishing. This operation now can be fully programmed at great savings in labor and energy.
The paper concludes with a discussion of a very large installation for the production of thick-walled forged tubes and a new mechanical screw press which can deliver very large amounts of energy on each blow.The paper concludes with a discussion of a very large installation for the production of thick-walled forged tubes and a new mechanical screw press which can deliver very large amounts of energy on each blow.
forging, precision forging, isothermal forging, computer-controlled forging, warm die forging, multiaxis forging, screw press
Manager, Metalworking Presses, Siempelkamp Corp., Marietta, GA