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    Emulsifiable Concentrate Formulations for Multiple Active Ingredients Using N-Alkylpyrrolidones

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    Higher N-alkyl pyrrolidones, a new and unique class of surface active solvents have been shown to be excellent for formulating a wide variety of agricultural active ingredients (a.i.) as emulsifiable concentrates (ECs). The proprietary solvent system we have developed for ECs consists of four components: 1. Water-soluble lower N-alkyl pyrrolidones, such as N-methyl pyrrolidone (AgsolEx1), that are needed for high a.i. loading in the formulations. AgsolEx1 is polar, has very high solvency and is biodegradable. 2. Water-insoluble higher N-alkyl pyrrolidones, such as N-octyl pyrrolidone (AgsolEx8) and N-dodecyl pyrrolidone (AgsolEx12) that eliminate crystal formation and stabilize the EC on dilution with water. These alkyl pyrrolidones are moderately polar, have surfactant and wetting properties, have low toxicity and are biodegradable. 3. Hydrophobic solvents, such as aromatic petroleum oils and long chain esters, help to improve the quality of the emulsion on dilution with water. 4. Nonylphenol ethyoxylated phosphate ester surfactants.

    The active ingredients evaluated in our EC system included: atrazine, bendiocarb, carbaryl, dichlofluanid, diuron, metolachlor, pendimethalin, prodiamine, thidiazuron and triforine. Triangular co-ordinate plots were used to optimize the ternary solvent composition for a fixed weight ratio of active ingredients and surfactants. By using this solvent optimization technique, a variety of active ingredients having different biological spectra have been combined into a single EC formulation.

    A working model is proposed that explains the universality of the system and its high stability on dilution with water.


    Pesticides, formulations, emulsiflable concentrates, N-alkyl pyrrolidones, solvent optimization, surfactants, mixed active ingredients, compatibilization

    Author Information:

    Narayanan, KS
    GAF Chemicals Corporation, Wayne, NJ

    Chaudhuri, RK
    GAF Chemicals Corporation, Wayne, NJ

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.22

    DOI: 10.1520/STP16873S