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In environmental sampling, samples are taken for the purpose of solving a problem in a target population. The problem may not be correctly solved if bias is present in the samples, in the measurement of the samples, and/or in the use of the sample data to make conclusions about the population. This paper discusses a systematic approach which considers all these potential sources of bias when attempting to obtain a representative set of samples for making inference about the population.
Representative sampling, sampling bias, measurement bias, statistical bias, systematic approach
Staff Research Mathematician, Shell Development Company, Houston, TX