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Erosion of embankments on waterways, streams, rivers and lakes, and of fertile agricultural land is a chronic and costly problem. An estimated 4 billion tons of soil erosion occurs annually in the United States. Soil erosion causes water pollution and related environmental concerns, sediment buildup, and loss of valuable real estate. The adverse and costly consequences of soil erosion can be minimized by utilization of effective erosion control methods.
Stone is frequently the first choice of engineers among the erosion control methods that may be considered. However, major deterrents to the consistent supply and use of stone for erosion control applications are (1) the lack of realistic specifications for the grading of quarried stone for this application, and (2) the lack of standardized inspection and testing procedures for establishing compliance with specifications.
ASTM Subcommittee D18.17, Rock for Erosion Control, was established during the late 1970's for the purpose of developing standard specifications and standard test methods for rock for erosion control applications. Since its formation, the subcommittee has developed several test methods for evaluating the quality of stone products to be used for such applications.
The Subcommittee has also developed and is recommending a “Proposed Guide for Specifying Standard Sizes of Stone for Erosion Control.” This proposed Guide is presented and discussed in detail in this paper. Use of the standard gradings is encouraged for new construction projects, and standard gradings should be utilized whenever cost-effective construction will result.
erosion control, stone grading, grading specifications, riprap, standardized gradings, filter bedding stone, quarried stone
Technical Director, Construction Materials Group, Vulcan Materials Comapny, Birmingham, AL