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    On the Effect of Consumable Electrode Remelt Processes on Steel Cleanliness

    Published: 13 January 2015

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    A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based image/compositional system was employed to provide detailed quantitative information on the non-metallic inclusion populations found in air melt, electro-slag (ESR), and vacuum arc (VAR) produced steels. The air melt samples were from the parent heat that was used as electrodes for subsequent remelt processing to provide the ESR and VAR samples. A set of mid-radius samples were prepared from 210 mm diameter bars from the air melt and offspring ESR and VAR processed steels for steel cleanliness evaluation. Values from a series of cleanliness metrics are reported and compared for each sample set. Both the ESR and VAR processing of the original air melted electrodes had significant impact on the steel composition and non-metallic inclusion population. The ESR processing dramatically lowered the sulfur content and, consequently, the quantity of sulfide inclusions, whereas the VAR processing significantly lowered the quantity of oxide inclusions from that observed in the original air melt steel. Additionally, the average composition of both the oxides and sulfides in the remelted steels changed significantly. Explanations for these observed changes in the oxide and sulfide populations are proposed. Furthermore, comparisons are provided with previously evaluated remelted steel samples from different manufacturers. Finally, some general conclusions on the respective impact of distinctly different oxide populations from the various processing routes on fatigue performance are offered.


    inclusion, bearing steel, remelt, ESR, VAR, air melt, microinclusion, macroinclusion, cleanliness

    Author Information:

    Glaws, Peter
    TimkenSteel Corporation, Canton, OH

    Hyde, R. Scott
    The Timken Company, North Canton, OH

    Committee/Subcommittee: A01.28

    DOI: 10.1520/STP158020140098