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The inevitable increase of torque or load, because of lightweight approaches, pushes the oil-film temperatures on the teeth flanks of gears above 200°C, and requires alloys with higher strength and toughness properties. Furthermore, the real temperature on surfaces during the physical vapor deposition (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin films can exceed the annealing temperature of the state-of-the-art bearing and gear materials, such as AISI 52100 (1.3505), 16MnCr5 (1.7131), 21NiCrMo (1.6523), and 30CrMoV9 (1.7707). Such trends call for slip-rolling-resistant, alternative alloys suited for contact stresses above P0max of >2.2 GPa. The tribological profile under slip-rolling conditions at 120°C in a factory engine oil (SAE 0W-30, ACEA A3/B4, ν120°C = 5.33 mPa, HTHS150°C = 3.0 mPa) until 10 × 106 load cycles between P0max of 2.25 GPa to 3.92 GPa of uncoated 100Cr6 (1.3505, “PBQ”), 102Cr6 (1.2067), Cronidur 30 (1.4108, DESU), 45SiCrMo6 (1.8062, CVEM), 40SiNiCrMo1 [vacuum arc remelting (VAR)], CSS-42L (AMS 5932, vacuum induction melting (VIM)-VAR, and carburized), 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (CAB), ASP2012 (ASP), and 20MnCr5 (1.7131, carburized) was established in twin disk machines (Amsler-type and 2Disk). The present benchmark illuminates the tribological impact of uncoated bearing steels in comparison to uncoated alternative steel alloys on friction, wear and slip-rolling resistance, as well as load carrying capacity. Iron-based steel alloyed with silicon or molybdenum reduces alloying costs and avoids thermo-chemical treatments. This benchmark suggests considering an extension to fracture toughness from hardness and strength as a relevant property for slip-rolling alloys. If slip-rolling resistant, the wear rates of the metallurgical different steels were more or less within one order of magnitude, but the influence of increasing contact stresses on the tribological profile differed significantly.
slip rolling, bearing steel, high-toughness steel, silicon, molybdenum, rolling contact fatigue, high contact pressure, low friction
Head, Division 6.3 Macrotribology and Wear Protection, BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin,
Former Research Engineer, Division 6.3 Macrotribology and Wear Protection, BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin,