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A wide range of soil, plant, and environmental factors can affect herbicide volatility from soils and plants. Comparison of the volatilization would be most readily visualized by appropriate bioassay systems. In this research, a bioassay system was developed for evaluating herbicide volatilization from soil and another bioassay system for evaluating herbicide volatilization from plants. Volatilization injury from soil applications was compared for two formulations of oxyfluorfen, flumioxazin, and carfentrazone ethyl on “Boynton” bell pepper, velvetleaf, and redroot pigweed. Both formulations of oxyfluorfen volatilized from the loamy sand soil, whereas, neither the carfentrazone ethyl nor the flumioxazin volatilized sufficiently to cause plant injury. Using the same system, volatilization differences were insignificant among three soils: sandy, sandy loam, and muck. In the second bioassay system, 2,4-D or dicamba were applied foliarly to “Amber Red” wheat. Twenty minutes later, “Pioneer 92M92” soybean plants were placed in the middle of the sprayed wheat plants. Visual evaluation of the soybean plants 1 to 3 weeks later showed formulation differences.
volatilization, oxyfluorfen, flumioxazin, carfentrazone ethyl, 2,4-D, dicamba
Professor, Dept. of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State Univ., MI, East Lansing
Research Associate, Dept. of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State Univ., MI, East Lansing