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Estimation of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Canadian Residences
Estimates of emissions of ten VOCs from Canadian residences based on Eq 1, where Ci and Co, respectively, are the indoor and outdoor concentrations, ach is the number of air changes per hour, V the average house volume, and N the number of houses, ranged from 14 tonnes/y (benzene) to 227 tonnes/y (toluene). Measured ambient benzene concentrations in Metropolitan Toronto (annual mean of 2 to 3 μg/m3) were within a factor of 10 of box model predictions based on a benzene emission inventory. Predicted ambient concentrations for the VOCs with the three highest residential emissions (toluene, decane, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene) were a negligible fraction of measured ambient concentrations in Metropolitan Toronto. Canadian indoor emissions for selected VOCs found in household solvents were a small fraction (0.2 to 2.3%) of the residential solvent usage. Indoor and outdoor VOC concentration data in conjunction with air exchange rates are useful in estimating VOC emissions from residences.
indoor VOC sources, indoor emissions, residential emissions
Principal consultant, BOVAR-CONCORD Environmental, Downsview, ON
Senior scientist, Bureau of Chemical Hazards, Environmental Health Directorate, Ottawa, ON