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Three-sided concrete culverts can be used to replace short span bridges and multiple sections (barrels) of four-sided concrete box culverts. ASTM Standards do not specify designs for four-sided concrete box culverts with span lengths exceeding 12 ft (3.6 m) nor do they discuss the three-sided concrete culverts. This paper describes the analysis and design of three-sided flat-top precast reinforced concrete culverts with span length ranging between 14 ft (4 m) and 36 ft (11 m). It was shown that the AASHTO distribution width used in performing plane frame analysis gave similar results to the three-dimensional finite element analysis. Therefore, ten shallow structures were selected for analysis and design. The culverts were subjected to live load plus impact, dead load, and lateral earth pressure. The slab and wall thicknesses were selected so that no shear reinforcement is needed. The ultimate strength design was used to determine main reinforcing steel. AASHTO and ASTM recommendations were used to determine the reinforcing steel in transverse direction.
Analysis, design, three-sided culverts, precast
Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN