You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.
    This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.

    If you are an ASTM Compass Subscriber and this document is part of your subscription, you can access it for free at ASTM Compass
    STP1389

    Irwin's Stress Intensity Factor—A Historical Perspective

    Published: 01 January 2000


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF (292K) 15 $25   ADD TO CART
    Complete Source PDF (12M) 546 $325   ADD TO CART

    Cite this document

    X Add email address send
    X
      .RIS For RefWorks, EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zoteo, and many others.   .DOCX For Microsoft Word


    Abstract

    This paper is written to honor Dr. George R. Irwin and reviews several key developments in fracture mechanics based on his “stress-intensity factor” concept. The early development of two fundamental crack solutions, (1) an edge crack in a semi-infinite body and (2) the surface crack, are highlighted. Applications of Irwin's early concepts by other researchers to characterize fatigue-crack growth and brittle fracture of metallic materials are presented. The stress-intensity factor is the cornerstone of the damage-tolerance and durability design concepts used by the aerospace community around the world. The stress-intensity factor concept, crack-closure mechanics, and the observation that “fatigue is crack propagation” in many engineering materials has led to a merger of fatigue and fracture mechanics analysis methodologies. Irwin's recognition of the importance of the normal stress parallel to the crack (now referred to as the T-stress) in fracture led many to propose a two-parameter characterization for fracture. The importance of constraint on crack-tip yielding has been further advanced by the use of high-powered computers to calculate a normal-stress constraint parameter following his ideas. The father of fracture mechanics has left a legacy that will endure and provide safer and more reliable structures in the future.

    Keywords:

    cracks, fatigue, fatigue crack growth, fracture mechanics, stress-intensity factor, crack closure, plasticity, constraint


    Author Information:

    Newman, JC
    Senior scientist, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA


    Committee/Subcommittee: E08.06

    DOI: 10.1520/STP14792S