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An experimental investigation of fracture toughness in the ductile-brittle transition range was conducted. A large number of ASTM A533, Grade B steel, bend and tension specimens with varying crack lengths were tested throughout the t-ransition region. Cleavage fracture toughness scaling models were utilized to correct the data for the loss of constraint in short crack specimens and tension geometries. The toughness scaling models were effective in reducing the scatter in the data, but tended to overcorrect the results for the short crack bend specimens. A proposed ASTM Test Practice for Fracture Toughness in the Transition Range, which employs a master curve concept, was applied to the results. The proposed master curve over predicted the fracture toughness in the mid-transition and a modified master curve was developed that more accurately modeled the transition behavior of the material. Finally, the modified master curve and the fracture toughness scaling models were combined to predict the as-measured fracture toughness of the short crack bend and the tension specimens. It was shown that when the scaling models over correct the data for loss of constraint, they can also lead to non-conservative estimates of the increase in toughness for low constraint geometries.
fracture toughness, constraint effects, Weibull analysis, statistics, ductile-brittle transition, J integral, cleavage
Senior Mechanical Engineer, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Fatigue and Fracture Branch, Annapolis, MD
Professor of Mechanical Engineering, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD