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Successful performance of solidification and stabilization treatment technologies largely depends on the ability of the treated waste to endure long term exposure to physical and chemical stresses. The available test methods to assess durability of treated wastes rely on results from laboratory tests; these procedures rely on freeze/thaw cycles, elevated temperature, and exposure to various solutions to simulate the stresses exerted on a solidified/ stabilized (S/S) waste form over time. Unfortunately, none of the methods has been verified as replicating field behavior. In addition, the speciation of contaminants is a critical factor in determining long-term immobilization. Research is needed to cover areas which will address the issues associated with long-term performance of S/S waste forms. This paper discusses technical issues associated with long-term behavior of S/S waste forms and U.S. EPA research addressing these issues.
solidified/stabilized, leaching, chemical/physical weathering, contaminant speciation, durability
Chemical Engineer, U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH