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System design starts with the specimen and the forces that need to be applied to simulate service conditions by creating specified combinations of multiaxial stress or strain. Based on this premise a semigraphical tabular presentation is used to review the technical and cost-related advantages, and disadvantages, of alternative design schemes. References to real-world multiaxial test systems illustrate progress to the present day.
This paper sets out to review salient features that have marked out progress in the design of multiaxial systems over the past 50 years. It also aims to provide foresight in the specification of future equipment and to improve the understanding of those factors, other than intrinsic material behavior, which influence the characterization of high-strain multiaxial fatigue life.
multiaxial, torsion, internal pressure, external pressure, biaxial strain ratio, cruciform, thin-walled tube, modal control, low-cycle fatigue, LCF, crack propagation, thermomechanical fatigue, TMF
Corporate research director, Instron Corporation, High Wycombe,