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This paper discusses the application of three-dimensional computational airflow and smoke modeling to building environmental design. It is particularly concerned with the integration of modeling into the design process. The principles of airflow and smoke modeling techniques are discussed in terms of: • definition of building geometry and boundary conditions, • skills and resources required to carry out modeling, and • visualization of results.
The integration of modeling into the design process can be applied at two levels: • to assist in the development of design solutions at the early concept design stage and • to assess the design at detailed design stage.
During both stages, close liaison with the design team is essential. It is also necessary to be able to carry out the modeling work in “design time.” Results should be of a good visual quality in order to be easily understood by the design team and the client. This paper relates to a range of design projects. In each project, the use of modeling has had a significant impact on the design solution. This paper concludes that computational airflow modeling, if carried out by skilled personnel, can reduce the risk of building failure due to unsatisfactory environmental performance.
building simulation, environmental design, airflow, smoke management, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), indoor air
University of Wales College of Cardiff, Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff,
Design Flow Solutions, CBTC, Cardiff,