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    Admixture Enhanced Controlled Low-Strength Material for Direct Underwater Injection With Minimal Cross-Contamination

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    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high-range water-reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance Controlled Low-Strength Materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures that would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated before release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.


    tank stabilization, controlled density fill, Controlled Low-Strength Material, admixture, anti-washout admixture, water reducing admixture, flowable mortar, low density material, unshrinkable fill, void filling

    Author Information:

    Hepworth, HK
    Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Arizona University, Powell, TN

    Davidson, JS
    Senior Mechanical Engineer, Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN

    Hooyman, JL
    Student, Marquette University, Oak Ridge, TN

    Committee/Subcommittee: C09.66

    DOI: 10.1520/STP13066S