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    Design and Testing Controlled Low-Strength Materials (CLSM) Using Clean Coal Ash

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    The major objective of this project was to develop mixture proportions for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) using clean coal ash obtained from atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC). A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SOx and NOx control technologies. The specific ashes used for this project were: (1) circulating fluidized bed boiler fly ash and bottom ash and (2) stoker - type boiler fly ash and bottom ash. These two coal ash samples were characterized for physical and chemical properties. Chemical properties and water leaching tests were also performed on the hardened CLSM. Many initial CLSM mixtures were developed by blending the two types of ash.

    Tests conducted on the final three selected CLSM mixtures included compressive strength, bleeding, setting and hardening, settlement, length change of hardened CLSM, permeability, mineralogy, and chemical water leach testing. Results show that acceptable CLSM material can be developed by blending the fluidized bed boiler ash with the stoker boiler ash. Recommendations for a pilot scale manufacturing application of the three CLSM mixtures were made based upon the lab test results.


    controlled low-strength material (CLSM), mixture proportion, compressive strength, permeability, shrinkage, leachates, fluidized bed boiler, coal ash

    Author Information:

    Naik, TR
    Director, Center for By-Products Utilization and Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI

    Kraus, RN
    Research Associate, Center for By-Products Utilization, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI

    Sturzl, RF
    Electric Production Manager, Manitowoc Public Utilities, Manitowoc, WI

    Ramme, BW
    Manager, Combustion By-Products Utilization, Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Milwaukee, WI

    Committee/Subcommittee: D18.05

    DOI: 10.1520/STP13060S