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This paper presents a survey of historical and biomechanical aspects of boxing, acute and chronic clinical findings and acute and chronic morphological findings of body organs, and the central nervous system of boxers. The historical section begins with the development of fistfighting in Greece and Rome. The impact mechanics of boxing blows against the head is discussed. Successive sections describe facial injuries, eye injuries, hearing impairment, injuries to the hand and wrist, cardiac injuries, acute renal change, and the different knock-down and knock-out mechanisms. Also discussed are the oculecardiac reflex, boxing blows against the lateral region of the neck, the chronic clinical findings, and the acute and pathomorphological findings in the brain. It is shown that boxing leads to a severe permanent brain damage, in amateur and professional boxers, which depends mainly on the number of bouts and the weight class of the boxer.
boxing injuries, historical aspects of boxing, acute and clinical findings, acute and classic pathomorphological findings, knock-out mechanisms, biomechanics of impact
President, Neuroscience, Inc., New Orleans, LA