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    Indirect Exposure Screening Model for Evaluating Contaminant Intake from Air Emissions Via Ingestion of Milk and Beef: Risk-Based Air Concentrations

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    A conceptual model has been developed to estimate screening level, risk-based contaminant air concentrations with respect to human health risks from indirect exposures to air emissions. The model can evaluate risks from products of incomplete combustion, principal organic hazardous constituents associated with hazardous waste incinerator emissions and other air emittants. Derivation of screening levels is facilitated with a computer spreadsheet requiring six input values. To avoid complex air modeling, estimates are used for some parameters, such as particle deposition rate. The risk-based air concentrations can be used in the early stages of a risk investigation (prior to the trial burn at some incinerator sites) for screening purposes. These risk-based air concentrations can be compared to air concentrations extrapolated from trial burn or other relevant site historical data to determine whether or not a significant risk due to indirect exposures may be present. If screening comparisons reveal the possibility of significant risks, a more extensive risk assessment analysis can be performed and risk-drivers can be identified early in the process. Conversely, if significant risk is clearly not present for contaminants of concern, the analysis can be concluded cost-effectively with the screening process.


    indirect exposure, incinerator emissions, screening, risk-based concentrations, products of incomplete combustion

    Author Information:

    Chew, CM
    Environmental Toxicologist, Roy F. Weston, Inc., Seattle, Washington,

    Lorenzana, RM
    Toxicologist, Office of Environmental Assessment, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, Washington,

    Garry, M
    Risk Assessor, Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, Bellevue, Washington,

    Committee/Subcommittee: E47.13

    DOI: 10.1520/STP12244S