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The current widely accepted “industry standard” pump test employs a Vickers V104C (or V105C) vane pump to assess the antiwear performance of hydraulic fluids. The two main versions of the test are documented as ASTM and IP methods. This pump test method, which was first developed in the 1960s, assesses only the steel-on-steel antiwear performance of hydraulic fluids, and this under constant speed, constant volume, and constant high pressure conditions. Constant conditions are not experienced in practical applications and it can be shown that hydraulic fluids which perform well at high pressure can fail to provide adequate antiwear performance at low pressure. Although other pump types may have different materials in contact, standard universally accepted procedures have not yet emerged to cover these. It can be shown that hydraulic fluids which have good steel-on-steel antiwear performance can have poor performance in steel-on-yellow-metal contacts. There is therefore a need for wear test procedures to be developed which cover the full range of operating conditions and material types found in practical applications. This paper will review experience gained in the author's laboratory, with different hydraulic fluid types, during the development of wear test procedures which more adequately cover the range of operating conditions and material contacts experienced in practical operating environments.
hydraulic fluid, pump, lubrication
Senior Scientist, Shell Research Ltd., Thornton Research Centre, Chester,