| ||Format||Pages||Price|| |
|PDF (280K)||18||$25||  ADD TO CART|
|Complete Source PDF (8.1M)||483||$100||  ADD TO CART|
This paper reviews some of the laboratory Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) protocols published to date. A history of the development of these techniques and their application in effluents is presented. Also presented are examples of applications of these techniques, a review of selected techniques, a summary of individual techniques and the chemicals they remove or render nontoxic, and case studies. Many laboratory TIE techniques are available beyond those published by USEPA, and a myriad of techniques have been successfully applied. The published techniques were found to be generally “investigative” or “applied” in nature. It is concluded from this review that the generally chemical-specific investigative techniques and the applied techniques, which do not emphasize the identification of specific toxicants, can both be useful under various conditions. However, it is recommended that as a means to preliminarily evaluate fullscale wastewater treatment options and possibly identify specific toxicants amenable to “upstream” control, laboratory TIE methodologies combining both approaches be used.
Toxicity Identification Evaluation, TIE, Toxicity Reduction Evaluation, TRE, Aquatic Toxicity, Toxicity Characterization, Fractionation, Wastewater Treatment
Manager, Ecotoxicology Group, The ADVENT Group, Inc., Brentwood, TN