You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.
    This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription.


    2,4-D Salts and Adjuvants-Review and Perspectives

    Published: 0

      Format Pages Price  
    PDF (164K) 11 $25   ADD TO CART
    Complete Source PDF (5.0M) 261 $160   ADD TO CART


    The herbicide 2,4-D is an important herbicide at a global level. In 1999, the herbicide was ranked as the fifth herbicide in the United States regarding sales. The 2,4-D amine salts are generally not applied in combination with adjuvants. An effective and inexpensive adjuvant, either as built-in or as tank-mix adjuvant, can create a new product with benefits for the user and the environment. Such a product can be an alternative for the 2,4-D esters requiring emulsion-type formulations. The objective of this study is to investigate whether a review of published data, insight in the adjuvant-action and knowledge of the weed species may result in a list of adjuvant types being effective for 2,4-D amine salts. The lipophilicity of the 2,4-D molecule depends on the pH-dependent dissociation of the carboxylic group. Both hydrophilic and lipophilic adjuvants can be effective for 2,4-D amine salts. It will be discussed in how far this is related to the pH- dependent ionic character of 2,4-D. Ion-pair formation by association of the 2,4-D anion with a cationic counter ion as a tool for improving herbicide performance will be discussed. Calcium ions in the water used as carrier may reduce the performance of 2,4-D. It will be discussed in how far adjuvants may overcome this antagonistic effect of calcium.


    2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 2,4-D amine, adjuvant, surfactant, pH, ion-pair

    Author Information:

    de Ruiter, H
    Director, SURfaPLUS R&D bv, AA Wageningen,

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.22

    DOI: 10.1520/STP11198S