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This review paper presents what is generally accepted today as scientific certainty in the field of alpine skiing; it is based upon knowledge that has been published in the peer-reviewed literature, presented at scientific meetings, or from other sources such as ski trade and consumer publications.
The contents of the review come from a multitude of worldwide research, as well as from the 29-year case control study by the authors. In that case control study, the release binding system performance for controls and selected injury diagnosis groups has been evaluated under simulated loads using a device defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard F504 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Quasi-Static Release Moments of Alpine Ski Bindings, or by other test devices as defined by F1061 Specifications for Ski Binding Test Devices.
The paper concentrates on common lower extremity injuries in skiing related to the unique mechanical properties of the ski-binding-boot system. It does not address non-lower extremity injuries, such as head, neck, upper body, etc. except in the context of possible inadvertent system release resulting in injury.
ski injuries, epidemiology, binding function, lower leg injuries, tibial shaft fractures, knee injuries, injury mechanisms
Professor Emeritus, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY
President, Vermont Ski Safety Equipment, VT
McClure Professor of Musculoskeletal Research, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT