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    Measurement and Control Methodology for the Flowability of Lime Fines in Steel Injection Systems

    Published: 2012

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    In recent years, injection technology in steel making has evolved from a means to inject oxygen and carbon into an electric arc furnace to a preferred technology for the introduction of calcium and dolomitic lime fines into the furnace. In optimizing this process, flowability is an important factor. Literature searches reveal that there are few useful methodologies for measuring the flowability characteristics of materials in the desired size range of 10 mm × 0 mm. Therefore, control standards need to be developed for measuring the desired quality of lime fines for injection systems. A methodology has been developed based on the key characteristics of “compressibility” and “cohesiveness,” which can be used to evaluate lime suitability in injection systems. The traits that help define these characteristics are the loose and packed density and the angle of repose. The results of these measurements are used as criteria for setting the control limits for flowability. Adhering to these control limits has mitigated problems in the field encountered when injecting lime fines into steel furnaces. This article describes the methods developed and how control limits can be determined for approving lime fines for injection into steel furnaces.


    steel injection technology, lime fines, flowability, compressibility, cohesiveness

    Author Information:

    McKinney, David
    Carmeuse Lime and Stone, Pittsburgh, PA

    Wolfe, Larry D.
    Carmeuse Lime and Stone, Pittsburgh, PA

    Belcastro, Philip
    Carmeuse Lime and Stone, Pittsburgh, PA

    Derby, James
    Carmeuse Lime and Stone, Pittsburgh, PA

    Committee/Subcommittee: C07.05

    DOI: 10.1520/STP104319