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The nonmetallic inclusion structure in a steel has been demonstrated to have a dramatic effect on mechanical properties and lamellar-tearing resistance. Although the through-thickness tension test has become widely used to assure a level of quality with regard to both of these items, the toughness and fatigue properties are also of concern. This study compares the tensile, Charpy V-notch impact, and fatigue crack propagation properties in the three major testing orientations of six plate steel grades in each of two quality levels (inclusion structures). The primary emphasis of the study was to establish which parameters from these test methods were most sensitive to inclusion structure. Generally, the Charpy V-notch upper shelf energy was found to be the most sensitive parameter to changes in inclusion structure. In steels with higher inclusion levels, however, the through-thickness tensile reduction of area was most sensitive. This appeared to take place when this value was less than 25 percent. Correlations among the various testing parameters were also identified.
through-thickness tension testing, inclusions, toughness, fatigue, inclusion effects, steel properties, anisotropy, steel quality
Senior Research Engineer, Lukens Steel Company, Coatesville, Pa.