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Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Production
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This chapter provides a review of hydraulic fracturing fluids and its effect on fracture propagation. It also reviews the effect of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling on the aggregate economy, the factors that construct the cash flow of a project over its lifetime, and finally the production curves of hydraulically fractured wells. The first section of this chapter provides an in-depth review of economics of hydraulic fracturing including the variables that impact the cash flow and net present value analysis. The second section reviews the principals of hydraulic fracture propagation and summarizes the most applied models by the industry. A review of hydraulic fracturing fluid systems followed by their rheological properties and an example schedule of a hydraulic fracturing job are reported in the fourth section of this chapter. The fifth section provides a review of the environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing fluids with a focus on chemical characteristics and produced water issues. The last section reviews different classes of production decline curve models with details of the analysis techniques for each model and discusses an example decline curve model from Kansas.
2 foam, nitrogen foam, hydraulic fracturing fluid compositions, decline curve-->
hydraulic fracturing, fracturing fluids, economics of hydraulic fracturing, environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing, polymer based fluids, viscoelastic surfactants, CO2 foam, nitrogen foam, hydraulic fracturing fluid compositions, decline curve
University of Kansas, Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Lawrence, KS
University of Kansas, Institute for Policy and Social Research, Lawrence, KS