Published: Jan 2013
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This chapter discusses basic properties and specifications of crude oil and refinery products and their significance in commercial applications. These properties include boiling point, density, viscosity, molecular type composition (paraffin, naphthene, aromatic content), elemental analysis, sulfur and metal contents, freezing point, carbon residue, pour point, flash point, cloud point, vapor pressure, flammability range, wax and asphaltene contents, octane number, cetane number, aniline point, and carbonto- hydrogen ratio. Not all of these properties are important for every product and usually additional specifications are required for each fuel, including, liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and fuel oil. For heavy products, properties such as viscosity, sulfur content, wax and asphaltene contents, and carbon residues are measured and reported. Specifications recommended for various fuels including biodiesels by standard organizations and manufacturers in the United States and Europe are also presented. Crude assay data include density, viscosity, sulfur content, acidity, metal content, and salt and water contents, and selected assays are presented for several crude oils around the world. Minimum laboratory data needed by designers and operators for crude oil refining and various products are also discussed.
Properties, specifications, crude assay, petroleum products, product quality, standard test methods, manufacturer standards, environmental standards, ULSD, biodiesel, minimum laboratory data
Riazi, M. R.
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA